Galileo hypothesized that a falling object would gain equal amounts of velocity in equal amounts of time, which meant that as it fell its speed increased at a constant rate. His experiments proved this to be true.

Galileo described his experiment in his book "Discourses on Two New Sciences" (1638).

*Note: Roll a ball down a ramp. If you doubled the amount of time that
the ball rolls, it travels four times as far.*

The acceleration of gravity on earth is approximately

- 9.807 m/sec
^{2}(9.764 to 9.834) - 32.175 ft/sec
^{2}(32.034 to 32.264)

*Note: Gravity varies on the surface of Earth, because of the size of Earth
and the distance we are on its surface from its center.
Also the density of the Earth varies in different places.*

**For these projects use 9.8 m/sec/sec or
32 ft/sec/sec for the acceleration of gravity.**

Questions:

- what is the difference between speed and velocity (if any)?
- the earth is not perfect sphere. What is its shape?
(Hint: It is an oblate ...)
*(The answer is at the bottom of this webpage)*

Create a graphics simulation of Galileo's experiment. It should include

- Earth's acceleration of gravity
- a ramp
- a ball (circle)
- user ability to change the angle of the ramp
- limit how steep the ramp can be
- show acceleration as the ball rolls down the ramp
- the steeper the ramp the faster the ball rolls
- the more time the ball rolls, the more distance the ball covers
- the ball rolls down the ramp in time jumps, not continuous motion.

0.1, 0.01, 0.001, ... seconds? pick a time jump that best shows the experiment. - a button to reset the experiment

Use graphics.py. Click HERE for more information. (download, install, documentation, etc.)

Allow the user to select the acceleration of gravity

Sun | 274.13 m/sec^{2} |

Mercury | 3.59 m/sec^{2} |

Venus | 8.87 m/sec^{2} |

Moon | 1.62 m/sec^{2} |

Mars | 3.77 m/sec^{2} |

Jupiter | 25.95 m/sec^{2} |

Saturn | 11.08 m/sec^{2} |

Uranus | 10.67 m/sec^{2} |

Neptune | 14.07 m/sec^{2} |

Pluto | 0.42 m/sec^{2} |

If you change the gravity and the time jump remains the same as Earth's gravity experiment, the distance the ball travels will change.

Galileo's Inclined Plane Experiment

Galileo's Measure Of Gravity Explained By Jim Al-Khalili
(YouTube)

Making a gravity simulator using Python

Create Your Own N-body Simulation (With Python)

Problem with simulating gravity in Python

Equation from HERE

See the project "Send and receive secret messages" to see how to decrypt the answer.YMJ JFWYM NX F UJFW XMFUJI TGQFYJ XUMJWJTNI

The encryption shift factor is 5. The character set is:

abc = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'G', 'H', 'I', 'J', 'K', 'L', 'M', 'N', 'O', 'P', 'Q', 'R', 'S', 'T', 'U', 'V', 'W', 'X', 'Y', 'Z', '.', '?', '!', '(', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '0', ')']

Finds the distance traveled (d) of an object with an initial velocity of zero, acceleration (a), and time (t) traveled. The equation used is

d = ½ * a * t ^{2}

Finds the distance traveled (d) of an object with an initial velocity (v), acceleration (a), and time (t) traveled. The equation used is

d = (v * t) + (½ * a * t ^{2})

In the examples above the ball is pulled by the force of gravity. As you can see in the diagram the force of gravity is downward.

In the first example the ramp is resisting the force of gravity on the ball. The ball does not move because there is no sideways force. The force of gravity pulls (tried to accelerates) the ball but the ramp pushes back.

In the second example the ramp is not in a position to resist the force of gravity on the ball. The full force of gravity pulls (accelerates) the ball downward.

In the third and forth examples the ramp is at an angle to the ball.
The force of gravity can be defined as two independent forces.
One force is pushing the ball against the ramp. The other
force pulls (accelerates) the ball down the ramp.
*(Note: The sum of the two forces equals the force of gravity.)*

By adjusting the steepness of the ramp you can control how fast the ball accelerates. The steeper the ramp the fast the ball is pulled (accelerated) down the ramp.

*Remember* *(The bigger the force the faster the acceleration.)*

{Fudd's First Law}: If you push something hard enough it will fall over.